Resources – Shirley’s Articles For Reprint

Review Of The Comma

One of the most common problems in business writing today is getting the comma in the right place. I see so many commas where there should really be full-stops.

As a general rule, we should use a comma:

  • to separate words or phrases in a list.
    Would you like a gold, grey, white or black trim on your new car?
    Writing well takes time, effort and a lot of practice.
    (NB: In a list like this do not put a comma before the final and.)
  • to separate adjectives qualifying the same noun.
    Please enclose a large, self-addressed envelope.
    I enjoy the warm, humid climate in Singapore.
  • to join two clauses that are joined by a co-ordinating conjunction.
    The expansion of our business is a long-term project, and we need an efficient management consultant to help us.
    John has the necessary qualifications, but Dave has more experience.
    (NB: Whether or not you use a comma here will depend on your own preference, the length of the sentence and the amount of separation that you wish to show. In a short sentence where the ideas in the clauses are closely related, you might leave out the comma. In a longer sentence you might put in a comma so that the reader can absorb what he or she has read so far.)
  • to create parentheses, where something is inserted that either expands on the main sentence or qualifies part of it.
    Mandy Lim, my secretary, will contact you soon to make an appointment.
    The Managing Director, who is overseas at present, has asked me to reply to your letter.
  • to separate phrases and clauses to make your message easier to read.
    We have five different models, each with its own special features.
    Although I agree with the points you mention, I would like clarification on various issues.

Using commas is largely a matter of taste and style, but one thing is for sure – they should not be overused. When I first revised Gartside’s Model Business Letters in 1992 many of the letters were full of commas and very long sentences. Take a look at this example:

Unfortunately, if we invest in new machinery, and the market falls again, as it has been predicted, we may, possibly, find ourselves with too much production capacity, and this may, therefore, result in even more serious problems.

While all the commas in this sentence are placed correctly, there are far too many of them and they make the sentence jerky. In today’s business writing we should keep sentences short and cut out non- essential commas. For example:

We must give serious consideration to the issue of investing in new machinery. If the market falls again, as it has been predicted, we could find ourselves with increased production capacity. This may then result in even more difficulties.

All articles are copyright © Shirley Taylor. All rights reserved. This information may not be distributed, sold, publicly presented, or used in any other manner, except as described here.

Permission to reprint all or part of any article in your magazine, e-zine, website, blog or organisation newsletter is granted, as long as:

  1. The entire credit line below is included*.
  2. The website link to is clickable (live)**.
  3. You send a copy, PDF, or link of the work in which the article is used when published.

This credit line must be reprinted in its entirety to use any articles by Shirley Taylor:

* Credit line:
© Shirley Taylor.
Shirley is a high-energy, high-content speaker who is passionate about motivating individuals to make a real difference in our automated world. With inspiring stories and a fun style, she engages audiences quickly, and encourages them to embrace high-touch as well as high-tech so they can connect with heart.

Shirley has been a trusted member of the professional speaking and training community for many years, and has received several awards for her services in leadership. She served as Asia Professional Speakers Singapore President 2011-12 and as Global Speakers Federation President 2017-18. She has spoken in almost 20 countries all over the world.

Author of 12 books published by international publishers, Shirley has established herself as a leading authority in workplace communication, business writing, and email. Her international bestseller Model Business Letters, Emails & Other Business Documents 7th edition has sold over half a million copies worldwide and been translated into 17 languages.

If you would like Shirley to speak at your next event, visit

** The website link to must be clickable to receive permission to reprint the article.